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Archive for the ‘Layman’s Electronincs’ Category

What is the Threshold Voltage in the MOS Transistors

Posted by Nityanand Dubey on March 16, 2009

Please Note that the mentioned description is not the actual operation of the device. It is just a way to remember the concept .

In this chapter, we will not take the help of electronic symbols, instead of that, we will relate this phenomenon with a very common example from our daily life.

To understand the concept of threshold voltage, Lets See the following Image .

Image Threshold

An Example of theshold

An Example of theshold

Now in the diagram –

We have a tap fitted tank. the water can be filled inside the tank from the top of the tank, and the water can be taken out from the tap.

Now, The water can not be taken out from the tap until the water level touches the tap level

Lets relate the amount of required water to get the tap level is the threshold voltage and the amount of water taken out from the tap is the output voltage. The output water from the tank will not be equal to the incoming water, It will always be less than the threshold amount of water

Summary : The Threshold voltage is the critical voltage point, after this voltage the actual operation of MOS Starts the output voltage will be always less than the threshold voltage in the total applied voltage.

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What is the Kirchhoff’s current Law?

Posted by Nityanand Dubey on March 13, 2009

Please Note that the mentioned description is not the actual operation of the device. It is just a way to remember the concept.

To understand the Kirchhoff’s Law, Lets take an example of Water supply line

Refer the diagram given bellow

Image Kirchaff’s law

An Example of kirchoff's Law

An Example of kirchoff's Law

Now from the diagram –

Here A, B, C and F are the four pipe lines those are bringing water to the point and D and E are the two pipe lines those are taking the water away from the point.

From the figure, It is clear that the total amount of input water will be equal to the total amount of output water.

One more thing is clear from given example, that the pipe line D is wider than pipe E Which clearly means that, the amount of water carrying by this line would be more than the any other.

So you can clearly say that the wider current carrier ( thicker wire) would carry more current than thinner wires

Summary : The Total outgoing Current at the any point of circuit is equal to total incoming current at the point. Also the wider wires would carry more current than the thinner wires

Mathematical Proof : By Puneet Arora

If A, B, C and F are carrying currents
I1, I2, I3 and I4 respecively

and currents carried by D and E are I5 and I6 repectively

then according to KIRCHHOFF’s LAW

I1 + I2 + I3 + I4 = I5 + I6

Resitance offered by a wire to the current flowing though it

R =pl/A

where p = resistivity of the wire.
It depends upon the material used for making the wire
l = length of the wire
A = Area of cross section of wire.

It supports that a shorter and wider wire
will offer lesser resistance
as compared to a longer and thin wire.

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How does the diod work as a Switch?

Posted by Nityanand Dubey on March 9, 2009

-Concept By Bhuvan Plaha .

Please Note that the mentioned description is not the actual operation of the device. It is just a way to remember the concept .

To remember this Concept, Lets assume the electronic symbol of a Diode and a switch The Symbol of diode looks like a arrow which can be used as a …….

Now, Lets See the following Image .

Image Diode – GO

Diode : Follow direction and go

Diode : Follow direction and go

Now according to the diagram –

The diode symbol shows the direction to go. In the middle of way, there is a inclined path, and at the top, you need to jump and go further. Remember this figure as a diode in forward bias.

Now Lets see the next diagram, which describes the behavior of diod in reverse bias

Image Diod Oh !!!

Diode : No Way !!!

Diode : No Way !!!

Now by looking into the image , It is clear that when it is tried to come by the same path, the obstacle could not be crossed and nothing will appear it the left hand side.

Summary : The Diode lets the current go in Forward Bias But blocks in the Reverse Bias. and it works as a Switch

Mathematical Proof : COMING SOON …..

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What is the effect of AC and DC current with an inductor?

Posted by Nityanand Dubey on March 5, 2009


Please Note that the mentioned description is not the actual operation of the device. It is just a way to remember the concept .

Same as last chapter, to understand the behavior of a inductor with the AC and DC currents, we will take the help of the electronic symbols used for inductor, AC current and DC current .

To understand the effect of a inductor with the DC current, Lets See the following Image .

Image Inductor with DC

Inductor with DC

Inductor with DC

Now according to the diagram –

DC Waves are straight waves So they can easily pass through the tunnel built in the inductor

Now Lets see the next diagram, which describes the behavior of AC Current with the inductors

Image Inductor with AC

Inductor with AC

Inductor with AC

Now by looking into the image , It is clear that AC current tries to go though the Inductor but due to its specific structure, is scrambles with the inductor and could not pass through

So we can say that an inductor resists the AC current

Summary : The Inductor Blocks the AC Current but allows the DC current to pass though it

Mathematical Proof : By Puneet Arora

Resistance offered by an Inductor to a signal flowing through it:

R = 2πfl

where f = frequecy of the signal
l = value of the inductor

For a DC signal,

DC signal does not vary its value as an AC signal does.
Therefore, frequency of a DC signal,

f = 0HZ

This makes Inductor resistance R = 2πfl ~ zero

This makes it clear that an inductor offers no resistance to a DC signal.

FOR AN AC signal

AC signal is a time varying signal and attains positive and negative values periodically or non periodically. So it has a finite value of frequncy say f

Therefore resistance offered by an inductor to an AC signal

R = 2πfl = A finite value depending upon frequcncy of the AC signal.

Higher the frequecy of the AC signal, higher is the resistance offered.
So an inductor blocks high frequecy AC signals.

If you have any idea similar to this, Please feel free to share it. It will be duly acknowledged in this site.

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What is the effect of AC and DC current with a capacitor?

Posted by Nityanand Dubey on March 3, 2009

Please Note that the mentioned description is not the actual operation of the device. It is just a way to remember the concept .

To understand the behavior of a capacitor with the AC and DC current, we will Take the help of the Capacitor Symbol and the symbol of AC and DC currents.

Lets See the following Image .

Image Layman’s : 1

Ac on cap

Ac on cap

Now according to the diagram –

AC Waves can pass through the Capacitor because of its Specific Shape

Now Lets see the next diagram, which describes the behavior of DC Current with the capacitor

Image Layman’s : 2

DC on cap

DC on cap

Now According to the image, It is clear that DC current tries to go though the capacitor but is just crashes down by the Capacitor’s huge wall

So we can say that a capacitor breaks the DC Current

Summary : The Capacitor Blocks the DC Current but allows the AC current to pass though it

Mathematical Proof : By Puneet Arora

RESISTANCE OFFERED BY A CAPACITOR TO A SIGNAL FLOWING THROUGH IT:

R = 1/2πfc
where f = frequency of the signal
c = value of the capacitor

FOR A DC SIGNAL

DC signal does not vary its value as an AC signal does.
Therefore, frequency of a DC signal,

f = 0HZ

This makes Capacitor resistance R = 1/2πfc ~ infinite

This makes it clear that a capacitor blocks a DC signal.

FOR AN AC signal

AC signal is a time varying signal and attain positive and negative values periodically or non periodically. So it has a finite value of frequncy say f

Therefore resistance offered by a capacitor to an AC signal

R = 1/2πfc = A finite value depending upon frequcncy of the AC signal.

For higher frequency signal, resistance offered is very small.

If you have any idea similar to this, Please feel free to share it. It will be duly acknowledged in this site.

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What is Gate ( Logic Gates )

Posted by Nityanand Dubey on July 7, 2008

In normal language, Gate donates “entry” or door. By relating this thing – Logic “Gates” are nothing but the door of “Digital Electronics”. So anybody who wants to learn Digital, must need to cross the entry point, called Gate-

 

 

 

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